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Understanding Agoraphobia: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment Options

Updated: Mar 25

A man suffering with agoraphobia

Agoraphobia stands as an anxiety disorder variant wherein a person undergoes heightened fear and evades situations or locations that might lead them to feel entrapped, without aid, or self-conscious. This state can be incapacitating, substantially impacting the person's ability to navigate daily life. Within this article, we shall examine agoraphobia symptoms understanding the causes and available treatments.

Common triggers.

A young woman sat on a sofa holding crutches

Common triggers for agoraphobia include congested areas, communal transit, commercial complexes, and sizable assemblies. This state is frequently paralleled by surges of intense fear, which could subsequently fortify the person's tendency to shun such situations. Agoraphobia's activation can arise from diverse origins and may impact even those hitherto unacquainted with it.

Here are some common situations that can trigger agoraphobia:

  • Triggering Event: An impactful incident, like an automobile collision, physical aggression, or a natural catastrophe, could prompt agoraphobic tendencies in certain individuals. Distressing occurrences can lead to sentiments of susceptibility and diminished command, factors contributing to agoraphobia's emergence.

  • Precursors like Panic Attacks: Panic attacks might act as precursors to agoraphobia. People encountering panic episodes within public or crowded spaces could cultivate an aversion to such situations, possibly exacerbating into agoraphobia.

  • Persistent Ailments: Individuals grappling with enduring ailments limiting mobility or inducing noticeable symptoms in public surroundings might foster agoraphobia. Dread of symptom manifestation in public could lead to full avoidance, culminating in seclusion and heightening apprehension.

  • Alterations in Life Path: Momentous shifts in life trajectory such as relocating to a new urban center, embarking on a fresh profession, or confronting substantial loss can incite agoraphobia. These shifts can disturb a person's established sense of security and ease, thus heightening vulnerability to anxiety.

  • Inherited Disposition: A portion of individuals may inherently possess a proclivity toward developing anxiety maladies, encompassing agoraphobia. In instances of familial anxiety disorder history, susceptibility to agoraphobia escalation could be heightened.

Can a pandemic like Covid-19 trigger agoraphobia?

Covid 19 and agoraphobia

Indeed, an epidemic akin to COVID-19 has the potential to induce agoraphobic tendencies in those who formerly did not encounter them. The trepidation of contracting the virus, coupled with the ambiguity surrounding the outbreak, might evoke unease and foster the evasion of communal spaces.

As days unfold, this evasion could evolve into agoraphobia, wherein individuals increasingly dread departing their homes and venturing into public places.

Throughout the epidemic, we were inundated with reports and online content spotlighting the hazards affiliated with communal areas. This influx of reminders about the dangers tied to departing one's home could intensify unease. The perpetual emphasis on the hazards associated with leaving home could cultivate an escalated sentiment of dread and susceptibility, ultimately contributing to agoraphobic development.

It's vital to acknowledge that the emergence of agoraphobia can be a gradual process, not necessarily triggered by a specific occurrence or circumstance.

Can agoraphobia be hereditary?

There is no definitive proof indicating a direct inheritance or genetic transmission of agoraphobia. Nonetheless, research has uncovered that individuals with ancestral roots linked to anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia, might encounter an elevated likelihood of experiencing the condition themselves. This propensity could stem from a fusion of genetic and situational components, like people you live with or a predisposition to anxiety-associated attributes.

It's noteworthy to recognize that while heredity could influence the onset of agoraphobia, it isn't the exclusive contributing factor. Surrounding circumstances, such as demanding life occurrences, hold the potential to induce or exacerbate agoraphobia symptoms. Furthermore, variations in individual coping techniques and personal fortitude can influence how a person navigates situations provoking anxiety.

Overall, while there may be a genetic component to the development of agoraphobia, it is likely that multiple factors contribute to the condition.

Men or Women?

Agoraphobia has the potential to impact individuals of all genders, and there exists no notable dissimilarity in the occurrence of agoraphobia between these gender categories. Nevertheless, a few investigations propose that women might display a greater inclination to pursue treatment for agoraphobia and other anxiety-related disorders in comparison to men. This inclination could arise from societal and cultural elements that discourage men from pursuing assistance for matters of mental well-being.

Can agoraphobia get worse if left untreated?

Certainly, should it remain unaddressed, the distress and unease linked with agoraphobia can amplify and constrict, culminating in heightened avoidance of circumstances provoking anxiety.

Over time, the apprehension of departing one's home or venturing into communal domains might escalate to such a degree that agoraphobic individuals could encounter seclusion, a factor that could aggravate sentiments of unease and despondency. Prolonged evasion of anxiety-inducing scenarios can intensify the hurdle of surmounting these apprehensions.

Moreover, those with untreated agoraphobia might develop manifestations of depression or resort to substance misuse as coping mechanisms for their anxiety-related indications. This could further complicate their capacity to solicit assistance and potentially exacerbate symptom management.

It's of prime importance to pursue treatment upon the onset of agoraphobia symptoms. There are efficacious treatments accessible, and through appropriate care, individuals grappling with agoraphobia can grasp the skills to regulate their symptoms and relish enriching lives.

So, what can be done?

Fortunately, agoraphobia can be treated with various therapies and methods. Here are some of the most effective treatments.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

A diagram explaining cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

CBT stands as a form of conversational therapy that supports individuals in recognizing and altering detrimental thought sequences and actions that fuel their unease. In the context of agoraphobia, CBT can equip individuals with tactics for handling their apprehensions and progressively encountering their triggers within a secure and monitored setting.

Exposure Therapy

Involving a gradual progression, exposure therapy engages individuals with the circumstances or locales evoking their unease, all within a cautious and secure framework.

The objective revolves around aiding individuals in acquiring the skills to govern their apprehension and progressively enhancing their capacity to endure the instigating scenarios. This can encompass methods like virtual reality simulations, conceptual immersion, or direct real-life engagement.


In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help manage the symptoms of agoraphobia. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications can be effective in reducing anxiety and panic attacks.

Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques.

Mindfulness and relaxation techniques, such as meditation, deep breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation, can help individuals manage their anxiety symptoms and promote feelings of calmness and relaxation.

Support Groups.

People attending a  support group

Support Groups can extend individuals a feeling of togetherness and empathy, as they engage with others who have encountered akin situations. This camaraderie can effectively alleviate sentiments of seclusion and foster a bolstered self-regard and belief in one's capabilities.

Can Hypnotherapy help with Agoraphobia?

Hypnotherapy could be considered as a supplemental approach to address agoraphobia, though it's crucial not to rely solely on it. Hypnotherapy entails guiding an individual into a trance-like condition, enhancing their susceptibility to suggestions, allowing the therapist to assist in reconfiguring negative thought sequences and conduct linked to their unease.

Engaging with a proficient mental health expert is of prime importance. They can competently assess your distinct requirements and formulate a holistic strategy, which might involve an amalgamation of therapies encompassing hypnotherapy, aiding you in surmounting agoraphobia and attaining a more enriching existence.

In conclusion.

Agoraphobia is classified as an anxiety disorder that has the potential to significantly impact an individual's life quality. Nevertheless, by accessing appropriate care, people can develop the skills to manage their fears and reestablish mastery over their existence. If you or someone within your circle is grappling with agoraphobia, it's vital to reach out for expert assistance and encouragement. Always bear in mind, restoration is attainable.

Sharon Shinwell is a UK qualified Psychotherapist and Clinical Hypnotherapist who has been helping people with anxiety issues for several years. Please take a look through our range of downloadable Self-Hypnosis sessions.

Sharon Shinwell Clinical Hypnotherapist

"This article represents the personal views and opinions of the author and should not be taken as representative of the official policy or position of any organization, professional, expert, or individual."


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