top of page

Understanding Agoraphobia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Agoraphobia is a type of anxiety disorder in which an individual experiences intense fear and avoidance of situations or places where they may feel trapped, helpless, or embarrassed. This condition can be debilitating, and it can greatly affect one's ability to function normally in everyday life. In this blog post, we will explore what agoraphobia is and what can help individuals recover.

Common triggers.

Common triggers for agoraphobia include crowded spaces, public transportation, shopping malls, and large gatherings. This condition is often accompanied by panic attacks, which can further reinforce the individual's avoidance behaviour.

  • Agoraphobia can be triggered by a variety of factors, and it can affect individuals who have never experienced it before. Here are some common situations that can trigger agoraphobia:

  • Traumatic event: A traumatic event such as a car accident, physical assault, or natural disaster can trigger agoraphobia in some individuals. Traumatic experiences can lead to feelings of vulnerability and loss of control, which can contribute to the development of agoraphobia.

  • Panic attacks: Panic attacks can be a precursor to agoraphobia. Individuals who experience panic attacks in public or crowded spaces may develop a fear of being in those situations, which can escalate into agoraphobia.

  • Chronic illness: Individuals with chronic illnesses that limit their mobility or cause them to experience physical symptoms in public may develop agoraphobia. The fear of experiencing symptoms in public can make them avoid going out altogether, leading to isolation and further anxiety.

  • Life changes: Major life changes such as moving to a new city, starting a new job, or experiencing a significant loss can trigger agoraphobia. These changes can disrupt an individual's sense of familiarity and safety, making them more susceptible to anxiety.

  • Genetic predisposition: Some individuals may be genetically predisposed to developing anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia. If there is a family history of anxiety disorders, an individual may be at a higher risk of developing agoraphobia.

Can a pandemic like Covid-19 trigger agoraphobia?

Yes, a pandemic like COVID-19 can trigger agoraphobia in individuals who previously did not experience it. The fear of contracting the virus and the uncertainty surrounding the pandemic can cause people to feel anxious and avoid public spaces. Over time, this avoidance can develop into agoraphobia, where individuals become increasingly afraid of leaving their homes and being in public spaces.

During the pandemic, we were bombarded with news and social media coverage that highlighted the dangers of being in public spaces, which can further exacerbate anxiety. The constant reminders of the risks associated with leaving home can create a heightened sense of fear and vulnerability, which can lead to the development of agoraphobia.

It is important to note that agoraphobia can develop gradually over time, and there may not be a specific triggering event or situation that caused it.

Can agoraphobia be hereditary?

There is no clear evidence to suggest that agoraphobia is directly inherited or passed down through genes. However, studies have found that individuals with a family history of anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia, may be more likely to develop the condition themselves. This could be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as a shared family environment or a predisposition to anxiety-related traits.

It is important to note that while genetics may play a role in the development of agoraphobia, it is not the only factor involved. Environmental factors, such as stressful life events, can also trigger or worsen symptoms of agoraphobia. Additionally, individual differences in coping styles and personal resilience can affect how an individual responds to anxiety-provoking situations.

Overall, while there may be a genetic component to the development of agoraphobia, it is likely that multiple factors contribute to the condition.

Men or Women?

Agoraphobia can affect both men and women, and there is no significant difference in the prevalence of agoraphobia between the two genders. However, some studies suggest that women are more likely to seek treatment for agoraphobia and other anxiety disorders compared to men. This may be due to social and cultural factors that discourage men from seeking help for mental health issues.

Can agoraphobia get worse if left untreated?

Yes, if left untreated, the fear and anxiety associated with agoraphobia can become more intense and limiting, leading to increased avoidance of situations that trigger anxiety.

Over time, the fear of leaving home or being in public spaces can become so intense that individuals with agoraphobia may become socially isolated, which can exacerbate feelings of anxiety and depression. The longer an individual avoids the situations that trigger their anxiety, the more challenging it becomes to overcome their fears.

Additionally, individuals with untreated agoraphobia may develop depression or substance abuse disorders as a way to cope with their anxiety symptoms. This can further complicate their ability to seek help and may make their symptoms more difficult to manage.

It is important to seek treatment if you are experiencing symptoms of agoraphobia. Effective treatments are available, and with the right treatment, individuals with agoraphobia can learn to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

So, what can be done?

Fortunately, agoraphobia can be treated with a variety of therapies and techniques. Here are some of the most effective treatments.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

CBT is a type of talk therapy that helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviours that contribute to their anxiety. In the case of agoraphobia, CBT can help individuals learn coping strategies to manage their fears and gradually face their triggers in a safe and controlled environment.

Exposure Therapy

Exposure therapy involves gradually exposing individuals to the situations or places that trigger their anxiety, in a controlled and safe manner. The goal is to help individuals learn to manage their fear and gradually increase their tolerance for the triggering situations. This can be done through virtual reality simulations, imaginal exposure, or in vivo exposure.


In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help manage the symptoms of agoraphobia. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications can be effective in reducing anxiety and panic attacks.

Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques.

Mindfulness and relaxation techniques, such as meditation, deep breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation, can help individuals manage their anxiety symptoms and promote feelings of calmness and relaxation.

Support Groups.

Support groups can provide individuals with a sense of community and understanding, as they connect with others who have similar experiences. This can be helpful in reducing feelings of isolation and promoting self-esteem and self-efficacy.

Can Hypnotherapy help with Agoraphobia?

Hypnotherapy can be used as a complementary treatment for agoraphobia, but it should not be relied upon as the sole treatment. Hypnotherapy involves inducing a trance-like state in which an individual is highly suggestible, and the therapist can use this state to help the individual overcome negative thought patterns and behaviours related to their anxiety.

It is important to consult with a qualified mental health professional who can help determine the best course of treatment for your specific needs. They can work with you to develop a comprehensive treatment plan that may include a combination of therapies, including hypnotherapy, to help you overcome agoraphobia and live a more fulfilling life.

In conclusion.

Agoraphobia is a type of anxiety disorder that can greatly affect an individual's quality of life. However, with the right treatment, individuals can learn to manage their fears and regain control over their lives. If you or someone you know is struggling with agoraphobia, it is important to seek professional help and support. Remember, recovery is possible.

Sharon Shinwell is a UK qualified Psychotherapist and Clinical Hypnotherapist who has been helping people with anxiety issues for several years. Please take a look through our range of downloadable Self-Hypnosis sessions.

"This article represents the personal views and opinions of the author and should not be taken as representative of the official policy or position of any organization, professional, expert, or individual."

bottom of page